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Understanding Laws of Perpetual Motion

                     


 

Orffyreus stated:

 

“Inward structure of the wheel is of a nature according to the laws of perpetual motion…..”

 

-Das Triumphirende Perpetuum Mobile, Bessler, 1719.

 

What did Orffyreus mean by laws of perpetual motion? Is there only a single law of perpetual motion or many laws of perpetual motion? How to articulate them, and what should be the precise statements of the laws of Perpetual Motion?

 

I wish Orffyreus could have little scholasticism to have enlightened us with his responses to remove our confusion. Any how, here is a humble attempt by me, whether timid or bold, meaningful or ridiculous, whatever it be, here, I venture to present it for your kind judgments.

 

Let me attempt to answer above questions in the light of my observations on the working of the Gravity wheel, in addition, in the light of false nature of prevailing laws of physics in mechanics and thermodynamics. And forgive me, surely, for that I shall go here exactly contrary to the sacrosanct laws of physics. In fact, if Orffyreus had revealed the secret of his gravity wheel to professor s’ Gravesande during the examination at the  castle of Weissenstein, I believe, in the course of further development of theoretical physics, following fundamental laws of the Perpetual Motion would have come into existence as the main theoretical framework of physics today. It should be noted that these sacrosanct laws of physics may hold true for the various parts of the perpetual motion machine but when they are applied to perpetual motion system as a “whole,” in my opinion, they get violated demonstrating the fact that “whole is greater than sum of its parts.”

 

Dynamics of Perpetual Motion

 

Three Fundamental Laws of Perpetual Motion

 

It appears that Newton’s three laws of motion don’t apply to the system of Perpetual Motion, one like the gravity wheel invented by Orffyreus, therefore, just by reversal of statement of Newton’s three laws of motion, we can obtain the corresponding laws of perpetual motion to have a beginning of dynamics of perpetual motion.   

 

 

First Law of Perpetual Motion 

 

According to the first law of perpetual motion, everything in the universe is in the state of perpetual motion. When in perpetual motion a moving object will continue moving doing useful work even in the presence of force. When an object or a system of objects is set in perpetual motion, momentum, energy and angular momentum can be created or destroyed.” 

 

 Objects we see at rest seem to be at rest only relatively because forces acting on them balance against each other for a limited region of space and time, otherwise fact is that everything in the universe is in the state of Perpetual Motion.

 

 A system of Perpetual Motion will not change its velocity even unbalanced force acts upon it to a certain limit, a ‘threshold’ limit.  A body in Perpetual Motion persists in its state of moving uniformly, even if it is compelled to change its state by force impressed up to a ‘threshold’ limit. Any object once set in perpetual motion will continue to move forever even in the presence of friction. A system of perpetual motion is capable of performing indefinite amount of work even in the presence of friction and other opposite forces up to a ‘threshold’ limit.

 

According to Aristotle all objects have a natural place in the universe: He believed that  heavy objects preferred rest while on the Earth but light objects like smoke wanted to be at rest in the sky and the stars wanted to remain in the heavens. He thought that a body was in its natural state when it was at rest, and for the body to move in a straight line at a constant speed an external agent was needed to continually propel it, otherwise it would stop moving. In contrast to heavens, due to the presence of friction, terrestrial motion would eventually come to halt. He had separate laws for the heaven and earth and failed to conceive that even in the presence of friction, perpetual motion  could be possible on the earth. Galileo Galilei, however, predicted perpetual motion  in the presence of friction incapable of doing any work i.e continuous motion. However, he realized that a force is necessary to change the velocity of a body, i.e., acceleration, but no force is needed to maintain its velocity. In other words, Galileo stated that, in the absence of a force, a moving object will continue moving. According to the law of perpetual motion everything in the universe is in the state of perpetual motion. In perpetual motion even in the presence of force a moving object will continue moving doing useful work. The tendency of objects to resist changes in motion was what Galileo called inertia. This erroneous concept was   taken by Newton, who made it into his first law, also known as the "law of inertia"—no force means no acceleration, and hence the body will maintain its velocity. As Newton's first law is a restatement of the law of inertia which Galileo had already described, Newton appropriately gave credit to Galileo.

 

The law of perpetual motion states that everything is in the state of perpetual motion and tends to be in the state of perpetual motion to describe a circular path. Things we see at rest and in the rectilinear motion is due to our limited perception.

 

It should be noted that Aristotle’s definition of force is acceptable to common sense while Galileo’s definition is hypothetical.

 

Second Law of Perpetual Motion 

 

In the case of a perpetual motion system, the total work/power/ torque produced is far greater than the energy/force applied to the system. For a system of perpetual motion, F does not appear to be equal to the product of mass and acceleration.

 

F < m.a…¿

 

Where F is the force applied, ‘m’ is the mass of the system and ‘a’ is acceleration.

 

Third Law of Perpetual Motion 

 

For a system of Perpetual Motion, total reaction that system undergoes is not exactly equal but far greater than the initial action.

 

 

Thermodynamics Reversed ¡

 

All of we know that three laws of thermodynamics are based on the impossibility of three kinds of perpetual motion machines; therefore, by reversal of statements of three laws of thermodynamics, we can easily get three fundamental laws of perpetual motion as follows:

 

Three Fundamental Laws of Perpetual Motion 

 

First Law of Perpetual Motion

 

The first law of perpetual motion states that “Energy can be created and destroyed”. As different forms of energies are nothing but effects of perpetual motions of various modes of perpetual motion of matter, various forms of energy can be transformed into each other. 

 

First law of perpetual motion ensures production of the work without the input of energy. It thus violates the first law of thermodynamics: the law of conservation of energy. The devices based on the first law of perpetual motion constitute the most popular category of perpetual motion.

 

The first law of thermodynamics deals with energy and work. A Perpetual motion machine, too, deals with energy and work. The first law of Perpetual motion ensures ‘creation of energy out of nothing’ without a supply of energy. In a system governed by the first law of Perpetual motion, the sum total of the original energy and the work done are not constant. This is what we mean by saying ‘energy is created’ in the case of any real Perpetual motion machine. Thus, like light Vs dark, first law of Perpetual motion is absolutely contrary to the law of conservation of energy as it violates law of energy conservation. Many perpetual motionists are confused about this fact but when there is the light of perpetual motion, the looming Darkness caused by law of conservation of energy out of ignorance is gone forever. The most obvious machine governed by the first law of Perpetual motion is the ever burning perpetual lamp as an example of chemical perpetual motion well described by Paraselsus. A perfect perpetual lamp produces heat or light, but never drains an energy reservoir to do so. It procures energy from nothingness. Another simple example is the most popular Over-balancing wheel, like one invented by Orffyreus. When the slight push is given to the Gravity wheel, it begins to accelerate, then, the wheel has more energy in its rotation than is put into it with work from the push. Once again, it procures energy from nowhere.

 

 

Second Law of Perpetual Motion

 

We can have various statements of the second law of perpetual motion.

 

 The second law of perpetual motion states that Order and disorder are subject to increase and decrease depending on the nature of the force and design of the system onto which it acts. The ‘intelligent forces’ in nature are capable of transforming chaos into an order, thus, lowering the entropy of the system.

 

When applied to a system of Possible heat driven Perpetual Motion machine or a heat engine, the Second Law of Perpetual Motion enables system to spontaneously convert thermal energy into mechanical work. It ensures there is only one heat reservoir involved, which is being spontaneously cooled involving a transfer of heat to a cooler reservoir, therefore, this conversion of heat into useful work, without any change in the environment, is possible, according to the second law of perpetual motion.

 

The second law of perpetual motion dictates that heat can be made to flow from cold to hot when a system of perpetual motion is involved. Obviously, it is possible to make heat flow from a cold place, like the interior of a refrigerator, just when we connect a gravity wheel to the refrigerator; we put work into the cycle through the gravity wheel which creates energy out of nothing. So final result is that heat can be made to flow from cold to hot without consumption of any form of energy,

 

The second law of perpetual motion states that machine can have efficiency greater than 100%, for this reason any device based on the second law of perpetual motion can be called as over-unity.  The first law of perpetual motion does not demand that any machine has a source of energy, so it doesn’t tell and doesn’t limit how much of energy a machine can use for work. Could it all be used for work? Could a machine have efficiency greater than 100%? These questions are best answered by the second law of perpetual motion which unequivocally states that there is no limit to work done once you have some amount of energy to run a machine. What a perpetual motionist is required is to reinforce the natural force with art of perpetual motion to make it inexhaustible by mere application of his ingenuity. The second law of perpetual motion dictates that in spite of presence of dissipative forces, there is no want of usable energy in the universe. When natural forces are reinforced by art of perpetual motion, they can be rendered into inexhaustible sources of energy to perform unlimited works. In brief, second law of perpetual motion states that if you have ingenuity, there is no natural limit Nature imposes on the design of the machines.

 

In particular, anti-perpetual motionists or the originators of thermodynamics, ignorant of laws of perpetual motion, worried that heat engines always reject some waste heat. For example, an automobile engine always heats the surrounding air, heats water in its radiator, expels heat through its tail pipe, and so forth. These worries holds no ground when you are a perpetual motionist, so,  to remove their worries, scientists need to be converted into perpetual motionists!

 

Regarding actual construction, it should be noted that the devices based on First law of the perpetual motion require more ingenuity on the part of the inventor as compared to the devices based on the second law of perpetual motion, for this reason a majority of attempts to construct devices based on the first law of perpetual motion has been a failure.

 

Perpetual motionist has observed that machines can be made to perform greater work than the amount of energy they consume. The second law of perpetual motion guarantees that a clever design could eliminate these losses completely. A prototype machine governed by the second law of perpetual motion   was invented by Gamgee’s Ammonia Motor that even captured the attention of then president of America. It was designed to propel a ship that simply withdrew heat energy from the ocean to power itself. To save the law of conservation of energy, it was shown that this didn’t violate the first law of thermodynamics, because the ocean contains plenty of heat energy. The ship simply extracted some of it, leaving a cold wake behind. Losses from friction in the ship's propellers and shafts returned some of this energy to the ocean immediately. Stopping the ship at its destination port turned the remainder to heat and returned it to the ocean as well. The ship merely borrowed energy for its voyage from the ocean. However, we can understand  that Gamgee couldn’t apply the second law of perpetual motion in a clever manner and failed to achieve his aim, but at the same time, instead of exploring truth of second law of perpetual  motion scientists were misguided to  reinforce their faith in the second law of thermodynamics that was putatively established by Sadi Carnot who himself failed to invent a heat driven perpetual motion machine as he was ignorant of true nature of “calorie” erroneously thought by him to be conserved. A perpetual motion machine like one actually invented by Cornelius Drebbel didn’t follow “Carnot cycle” so why to extend the laws of heat and work to apply to the whole universe, as I believe, the universe,  after all, is not a steam engine but a perpetual motion machine.

 

The second law of perpetual motion  enables machines to operate by extracting energy at some point in their cycle, use it for work, yet have everything return to an original state unchanged at the end of the cycle. When you have the ingenuity, you will find  much reality in the second law of perpetual motion being able to deliver free energy forever. Imperfect machines that are not governed by second law of perpetual motion and irreversible processes leave the universe changed permanently. Engineers measure this change as entropy; because their sacrosanct second law erroneously demands that any real process increase the entropy of the universe. These scientists are ignorant of the art of perpetual motion because they have no knowledge of intelligent nature of forces and lack their own ingenuity to realize laws of Perpetual motion. Perpetual motionists all over the world have been quite brilliant to realize true nature of laws of energy. In 1900, Nikola Tesla claimed to have discovered an abstract principle similar to the second law of perpetual motion   on which to base a perpetual motion machine of the second kind, however, he kept the secret with himself and   no prototype was produced by him to correct scientists.

 

Everybody knows that Scientists while working in their laboratories tend to be atheists, may be, they are not so at their home, as there they are hardly guided by laws of physics, but by their wives and children, and humdrum of life. However, fact is that their science text books have excommunicated God as well as perpetual motion from the studies of science and they have ridiculed both.

 

Orffyreus had great faith in his religion, he had great faith in the fact that gravity was an ever flowing river of inexhaustible force that could be employed to actuate gravity wheel capable of performing all kinds of mechanical works. He went to his Gurus in monasteries, met Rabbis and may be, even found a Guru who might have inspired him to invent a gravity wheel.

 

So Gurus, God and Gravity have been the source of inspiration for common man and perpetual motionists. Gravity is a force / energy / mass. They are interrelated. Unlike heat which has no direction and disruptive in nature, Gravity being a vector has a direction, attractive, hence, an intelligent force. To some extent, creationist who have now come to consider falling as not falling but an “intelligent falling” and thus, started a campaign against Newtonian mechanics in America, hold the same opinion expressed here.   English philosopher More had considered gravity as a ‘spiritual force’ repugnant to laws of mechanics. Veda states that nature of the gravity is very close to “Brahma” the ultimate source of energy, the infinite, unknowable, from which all things in the universe originate, therefore, being close to “Brahma” in the hierarchy of Natural forces, gravity personified as God – performer of “hundred works” (Shatakratuh) , quick performer of great works (Tuvikratu), quick doer (Tarasvi )  Self moving  (‘Svatva’, ‘Swadha’), self accelerated” (Sva-tavah or ‘svatvarita’), “beyond shielding” (Apratiskut, Anpachyuta,and Anatan) , of perpetual  increasing power (Shavah prathina, ’Amitauja i.e unlimited power) - has intelligence and consciousness.  As gravity is the one that holds up all the matter in the universe, as it  is responsible for the evolution of life on earth, as it  systematically regulates the universe; it is the Almighty force and Super intelligent. Gravity shares many attributes of God which is also very similar to Gravity as it is the Omnipotent, Omniscient, and a transparent force to everything, beyond shielding etc.

 

The bipolar nature of Magnetism and electricity is well known to us. Fundamental nature of the forces is same as we can see most of them are ruled by polar opposites: positive and negative, spiritual and material, attraction and repulsion. Vedas shows that Gravity is also dual in nature, creative and destructive, made of particle and wave, being associated with an equal and opposite power of repulsion not discovered as yet by science. This principle of duality is ubiquitous through-out the universe, and is indeed one of the fundamental principles of the working of the Universe as G. de Purucker has also aptly remarked: "the universe is held in its courses and its plans of beauty and harmony because of the two great cosmic powers, love and hate, attraction and repulsion." (Studies in Occult Philosophy by G. de Purucker, p. 323)

 

The Third Law of Perpetual Motion 

 

Not much significant in my opinion, the third law of Perpetual-motion states that continuous motion is also possible if hindrances like mechanical friction and electrical resistivity could be eliminated.

 

In fact, in practice, such forces can be greatly reduced, but they can never be completely eliminated without expending additional energy. It is nevertheless possible to get very close to this ideal. However, such a machine would not serve as a source of energy but would have utility as a perpetual energy storage device.

 

An important example is the superconductive metals, whose electrical resistance disappears totally at low temperature, generally somewhere around 20 K. Alas, the energy required to maintain the low temperature exceeds the work that results from the superconductive flow.

 

 

The laws of perpetual motion obtained/established as above are based on the solid evidence of Vedas, of the gravity wheel provided by Orffyreus,  and they are also based on the number of objections made against validity of laws of thermodynamics by eminent scientist like Poincare, Percy Bridgman, Feynman etc, and many others including eminent philosophers of science who have exposed the subjective character of the law of conservation of energy. To save space and time, let me quote only the Nobel laureate Percy William Bridgman here.

 

In his article entitled “Statistical Mechanics and the Second Law of Thermodynamics” Nobel laureate Percy William Bridgman (1882 -1961) critically examines meaning of the various statements and concept in connection with second law of thermodynamics from operational point of view, and then he raises many objections to it. He believes that physical concepts cannot be meaningfully studied unless they are capable of direct observation. By operational point of view, he means: “what is that we do when we are confronted with any concrete physical situation to which we attempt to apply the concept or about which we made the statement” Percy Bridgman holds the opinion   that concept of thermodynamics have no absolute validity - as these are relative to the operations and particularly to the scale of operations which one uses. He writes:

 

“It is probably not possible to set up a mechanistic model of a purely thermodynamic system, for the thermodynamic system knows no details, but only pressure and volume and temperature, whereas it is the essence of a mechanical model that it contains details which can have no counter part in the physical system insofar as it is purely thermodynamic. This prepares us to recognize that the concept of thermodynamics have no absolute validity, but are relative to the operations, and in particular to the scale of the operation which we use...”

 

Bridgman on Heat Death

 

“….The human mind has, however shown itself curiously unwilling to accept the prospect of a heat death, and there have been a number of attempts to avoid such an unwelcome conclusion. At least two of this, somewhat similar to each other, are based on the statistical interpretation of the second law. The first of these utilizes the theorem that in a closed mechanical system any configuration, once experienced, is bound to recur after the lapse of sufficient time. According to this view, the Universe endlessly goes through cycles of repetition, the so-called Poincare- Zarmelo’s cycle, of prodigious but calculable duration. The obvious objection to this picture is, that in order to realize a Poincare-Zarmelo cycle  the law of classical mechanics would have to be satisfied with an exactness quite fantastic, hopelessly beyond  the possibility of direct or indirect verification. The second attempt to make statistics avoid the heat death rest on the theorem that a statistical assembly is never in complete equilibrium, but is always subject to fluctuations, and these fluctuations may attain any intensity if we only wait long enough. The present state of the Universe is that to be regarded only as fluctuation with the possibility that similar fluctuation may recur in the future....

 

According to the astronomers the fluctuations has been taking the last 10^16 or perhaps now 10^10, years or so to smooth itself out to its still considerable rough ness, and there is certainly no evidence that before 1016 years ago the entropy was decreasing instead of increasing.”

 

Bridgman raises several objections to application of the second law to the entire Universe. He rightly argues that original formulation of the second law was restricted to isolated system and there is no logical ground by which it should be extended to whole Universe. Further, he considers heat death as a consequence of first law. In his opinion, it is fallacious to assume to be a consequence of second law of thermodynamics. He gives various illustrations to justify his argument and he then finally concludes:

 

“Finally, I briefly summarize what I believed to be the principle results of this analysis and indicate the possible lines of future progress. The most important result will be, I hope, a keen realization that in using statistics we are only using a paper and pencil model, which has logical difficulties within itself and difficulties of application to concrete physical situation which are very greater than the corresponding difficulties with more ordinary source of orders. Some of these difficulties I believe can never be surmounted, so that the statistical model can never be satisfactorily used by extrapolation either into remote epochs of time, to predict rare events, or into remote reaches of space, to give us an idea of the course of universal evolution.”

 

Ernst Mach stated:   “....that the expression “energy of the world” and entropy of the world are slightly permeated with scholasticism. Energy and entropy are metrical notions. What meaning can there be in applying these notions to a case in which they are not applicable, in which their values are not determinable? If we could really determine the entropy of the world it would represent a true, absolute measure of time in this way is best seen the utter tautology of the statement that that entropy of the world increases with time. Time, and the fact that certain changes take place only in a definite sense, are one and the same thing.”

 

Percy Bridgman who spent his entire career at Harvard, and was awarded Nobel Prize in 1946 for his work on higher-pressure physics remained skeptical forever about the truth of second law of thermodynamics. He even hoped that it might be possible some day to construct a machine which would violate the second of thermodynamics on a scale large enough to be commercially profitable. He remarked:

 

                “One thing that has much impressed me in recent conversation with physicist, particularly those of the younger generation, is the frequency of the conviction that it may be possible some day to construct a machine which shall violate the second of thermodynamics on a scale large enough to be commercially profitable. This constitutes a striking reversal of the attitude of the founders of thermodynamics, Kelvin and Clausius, who postulated the impossibility of perpetual motion of the second kind as a generalization from the uniformly unsuccessful attempts of the entire human race to realize it. (Here, it is evident that feats of Orffyreus and Edward Somerset were unknown to Bridgman-italics mine) Paradoxically, one very important factor in bringing about this change in attitude is the feeling of better understanding of the second law which the present generation enjoys, and which is largely due to the universal acceptance of the explanation of the second law in statistical terms, for which Gibbs so large a degree responsible. Statistical mechanics reduces the second law from a law of ostensibly absolute validity to a statement about high probabilities, leaving open the possibility that once in a great while there may be important violations. Doubtless another most important factor in present skepticism as to the ultimate commercial validity of the second law is discovery of the importance in many physical phenomena of those fluctuation effects which are demanded by statistical mechanics. It is very hard for indeed one who has the Brownian motion for the first time to resist the conviction that an ingenious enough engineer might get something useful out of it, and I have no doubt that many in this audience have tried their on hand at designing such a device, and I also have no doubt that their success has been discouraging nil.”[i]

 

It is interesting to speculate that if microorganism like bacteria were as intelligent as man but confronted with a similar energy crisis we have today, would it be possible for bacteria to harness energy from the Brownian motion to move their tiny perpetual motion machine; in the same we harness energy from the tides? The web site www.okka.biz speculates:

               

“One who observes Brownian motion in a microscope might reasonably conclude that, in principle at least, a nanomachine could be built which would bypass the Second Law of Thermodynamics. When a liquid containing microscopic particles is observed, the particles are seen to be in continuous (Brownian) motion. That motion is caused by random thermal impacts between the molecules of the liquid and the particles. If the thermal motion of water molecules can produce a visibly observable motion in particles which are at least 10^15 times as massive, it certainly not unreasonable to believe that suitable nanomachines could organize the effect to produce a useful mechanical output. The postulated nanomachines would then be able to export energy to the outside environment that it obtained by reducing the temperature of the liquid. The exported energy would be converted to heat and raise the temperature of the external environment as the output performed useful work. The resultant temperature difference between the environment and the liquid will then cause the energy which had done useful work to flow back into the liquid to return it to its original temperature and allows the process to continue indefinitely.”[ii]

 

While writing of this post, Professor Paritosh Dugar has just arrived, and during our  discussion on the current issue, he has  benefited me with his insights, he has finally remarked: “Petty people prate about great men and great ideas.” It has left me pondering about  how long scientist would keep on prating about "Orffyreus and his perpetual motion" - "the great man and his great idea" that he truly realized in the form of his wonderful Gravity Wheel that can  revolutionize .the world.

 

I recommend these fundamental laws of perpetual motion to you for the study and fair criticism as they throw considerable light on the nature of gravity. Anyone can see the truth of scientific facts at the optimum level; it does not require any special method of decoding or ‘right keys’ to extract knowledge from Apologia Poetica as the observations on the gravity wheel made by the witnesses, and  meaning of the statements  are plain in most of the cases while we read Orffyreus. So it is hoped that the present attempt at the possible statements of fundamental laws of perpetual motion   will be examined critically by readers.

 

Nevertheless, I hope you would enjoy reading this web page.



REFERENCES:

 

[i] Statistical mechanics and the second law of thermodynamics - in bulletin of the American mathematical society, April 1932, volumes 38, number 4, page 225.